What is Epilepsy and Prevention of Epilepsy

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Epilepsy Causes.

Epilepsy is a general term for the seizure tendency, epilepsy is usually only diagnosed after more than one seizure has occurred.

Epilepsy is a central-neurological-disorder of the nervous system in which brain activity becomes abnormal, causing seizures or unusual behavior, sensations and sometimes loss of consciousness.

Epilepsy causes vary by a person’s age, some people may have a genetic cause without a clear cause of epilepsy. But what’s true for every age is that  about half of all people with epilepsy do not know the cause, the causes of epilepsy usually involve some form of brain injury when identifiable, for most people, however, the causes of epilepsy are unknown.

There are approximately 180,000 new epilepsy cases every year, in children, approximately 30 percent occur, the most frequently affected are children and elderly adults, no cause can be found in up to 70 percent of all cases of epilepsy in adults and children, some people with no known epilepsy cause may may have a genetic form of epilepsy, one or or more genes may cause epilepsy or epilepsy in the brain.

Seizures may also occur in about 3 out of 10 children with autism spectrum disorder, the precise cause and relationship is still unclear, approximately 3 out of 10 people have a change in their brain structure that causes seizure electric storms.

Some young children may be born in a brain area that causes seizures with a structural change, genetic conditions that lead to brain injury, such as tuberous sclerosis Infections such as meningitis or encephalitis.

low oxygen during birth Injuries during birth or accidents in young or adult brain tumors, substances such as sodium or blood sugar are abnormal,
strokes, tumors and injuries are more common in middle age, stroke is the most common cause of new seizures in people over 65.

Epilepsy Types of Seizures.

Seizures are a symptom of all types of epilepsy, these are electricity surges in the brain. They’re like electric storms that stop your brain cells from working normally for a short time, if you had a seizure caused by epilepsy, your doctor will follow three steps to give you the right diagnosis.

  • Determine the type of seizure you have had.
  • On the basis of the type of seizure.
  • Determine the type of epilepsy you have.

There are various types of epilepsy, each with various causes, symptoms and treatments. Learn about idiopathic, symptomatic and other types of epilepsy, there are various types of seizures. Most seizures can be categorized as focal or widespread.

Seizures are divided into two groups.

  1. Generalized seizures.
  2. Focal (partial) seizures.

Generalized Seizures.

Generalized seizures begin with a widespread, excessive discharge of electricity from both hemispheres or sides of the brain, symptoms include staring and blinking, jerking, muscle tone loss and limb stiffness, symptoms include rhythmic, full – body jerking when the whole brain is involved.
Generalized seizures occur when the left and right hemispheres of the brain have widespread seizure activity.

The various types of widespread seizures:

  • Absence seizures.
  • Myoclonic Seizures.
  • Tonic-clonic seizures.

Absence seizures.

Sometimes referred to as small mal seizures, they can cause rapid blinking or look into space for a few seconds.

Absence seizures (formerly known as “petit mal” seizures) are very short and do not cause a person to fall or shake significantly.

Myoclonic Seizures.

Myoclonic seizures obviously cause short, shock – more like, jerking movements in a muscle tissue or group of muscles, this specific type of seizure usually causes the both sides of the body to also jerk at the same time obviously.

Tonic-clonic seizures.

Also now simply called grand mal seizures, can make a person cry out, Lose awareness, Falling to the ground, Have muscle jerks or spasms. After a tonic – clonic seizure, the person can feel tired.

Focal (partial) seizures.

Focal seizures start with an abnormal electrical discharge limited to a small brain area, seizure activity occurs when part of a brain hemisphere is limited. In the brain, where the seizure begins, there is a site or focus.

Signs and symptoms may include altered behaviour, thinking or movement, focal seizures can spread across the brain and cause a tonic_clonic seizure.

  • Focal seizures with retained awareness.
  • Focal seizures with a loss awareness.

Focal seizures with Retained Awareness.

Previously, this type of focal seizure was called a simple partial seizure.
This type of seizure originates in a hemisphere of the brain and does not  impair consciousness or awareness, the person can communicate during the seizure and then remember the episode.

Focal seizures with a loss awareness.

A focal dyscognitive seizure (formerly known as complex partial seizures) can also be called this type of focal seizure.

The person may not be able to answer questions during the seizure, in different regions or brain networks, concentrated dyscognitive seizures can begin, seizures are always similar for a given individual, as the same brain region(s) are often involved.

What are the Treatments for Epilepsy?

You have several ways to get treatment after you have been diagnosed with epilepsy. Drugs, a special diet, an implant that works on your nerves and surgery can help you feel better.

AEDs (anti – epileptic drugs) actually work by trying to control,  seizure-causing electrical activity in the brain, they do not cure epilepsy and are not used to stop seizures.

AEDs work the best if taken regularly, every day at about the same time.  up to 70 percent of people (7 in 10) with the right AEDs could have their seizures completely controlled (stop seizures), medicines are key to controlling seizures of epilepsy, operational procedures are another way to treat epilepsy.

Although the different types of epilepsy vary greatly, in about 70 percent of patients, medications can control seizures, there are many different AEDs and your neurologist usually selects the AED that is most appropriate for the type of seizure you have and your specific situation.

Most epilepsy patients take anti – epileptic drugs (AEDs) to prevent seizures. however, for people whose seizures are not controlled by anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), other treatment options exist.

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