Bone cancer is divided into primary and secondary bone cancer the primary forms of bone cancer in bone and secondary bone cancer cells begin elsewhere and eventually spread to bones.
Bone cancer can start in any bone in the body, but it most often affects the pelvis or long bones in the arms and legs bone cancer can start in any bone in the body.
But it most often affects the pelvis or long bones in the arms and legs scientists have made great progress in understanding how certain changes in the DNA of a person can lead to normal cancer cells, we often look like parents because they are the source of our DNA.
But DNA is more important than just how we look, it can affect our risks for certain diseases, including certain types of cancer, it is unknown the cause of most bone cancers.
A small number of bone cancers were associated with hereditary factors, while others were associated with previous exposure to radiation.
Stages of bone cancer.
The guidelines for staging developed by the american joint committee on cancer (AJCC) are often used to treat bone cancer, doctors often use survival rates as a standard way to discuss the prognosis (outlook) of a person.
Some cancer patients may want to know the survival statistics for people in similar situations, while others may not find the numbers useful or may not even want to know them.
How is the Stage Determined?
TNM system based on four key pieces of information:
Tumor (T): How big is the main tumor? Where is the location?
Node (N): Did the lymph nodes spread to the tumor? Where and how many if so?
Metastasis (M): Are other parts of the body metastasized by cancer? Where and how much if so?
The TNM system is used to describe the size and location of the tumor with the “T” plus a letter or number (0 to 4), Information on the specific stage of the tumor for bone cancer is listed below.
Skeleton, coffin, skull and bones of the face.
TX: There is no evaluation of the primary tumor: T0 (T plus zero) A primary tumor is not shown. T1: The tumor is 8 cm or smaller. T2: The tumor exceeds 8 cm. T3: In the primary bone site there are more than 1 separate tumors.
These small, bean shaped organs help to combat infection, regional lymph nodes are called lymph nodes near where the cancer started.
Lymph nodes are called distant lymph nodes in other parts of the body.
NX: Evaluation of regional lymph nodes is not possible. N0 (N plus zero) Cancer has not spread to lymph nodes in the region. N1: Cancer has spread to the lymph nodes in the region. For primary bone cancer, this is rare.
The TNM “M” indicates whether the cancer has spread to other parts of the body called distant metastasis, M0 (M+zero) No metastasis of cancer.
M1: Another part of the body has metastasized cancer. M1a: The lung metastasized the cancer. M1b: Cancer has metastasized to other organs or bones.
Symptoms/Signs bone cancer.
Some types of bone cancer occur mainly in children, while others mainly affect adults. The most common treatment is surgical removal but chemotherapy and radiation therapy may also be used.
Whether primary or metastatic, bone cancer can cause symptoms such as increased pain, swelling or sudden pain from a pathological fracture a fracture in a bone weakened by a tumor.
Bone cancers are divided into separate types according to the type of cell in which the cancer started, bone cancer is the most common type of cancer.
Signs and symptoms of bone cancer include:
2.Swelling and tenderness in the vicinity of the affected area.
4.leading to fracture.
Bone Cancer treatment.
The treatment options for bone cancer are based on your type of cancer, cancer stage, overall health and preferences, various bone cancers respond to various therapies some bone cancers are treated by surgery, some by surgery and chemotherapy, and some by surgery chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
The following descriptions of the most common bone cancer treatment options are listed. Treatment options and recommendations depend on a variety of factors, including cancer type, stage and grade, possible side effects, and patient preferences and overall health.
Imaging tests can help to determine the location and size of bone tumors and the spread of tumors to other parts of the body the recommended types of imaging tests depend on your signs and symptoms.
Tests may include:
1.Bone scan Computerized tomography (CT).
2.Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
3.Tomography of Positron Emission (PET).